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TM50 Energy efficiency in commercial kitchens (2021)
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TM50 Energy efficiency in commercial kitchens (2021)

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Commercial kitchens continue to be significant water and energy users and their carbon footprint on a business can be considerable. This new and expanded edition of Energy efficiency in commercial kitchens provides updated advice for designers, installers and operators of these facilities in all areas of business and industry on how to minimise their consumption, thereby realising efficiencies in both carbon emissions and operating costs. It has been prepared by a range of industry experts with real-world experience, with the aim of providing practical recommendations that can be applied to all commercial food service facilities, regardless of size.

To find out more about the author of TM50, see our CIBSE Knowledge blog interviews

1           Introduction     

1.1        Dealing with challenges

1.2        Use a qualified foodservice designer

2           New and existing foodservice operations            

2.1        New foodservice           

2.2        Existing foodservice      

3           Developing the catering design brief and strategy                          

3.1        Developing the brief     

3.2        Agreeing the energy strategy    

3.3        Financial constraints and budget            

3.4       Risks associated with value engineering

3.5        Future-proofing

3.6       Building services considerations

4           Project considerations and design principles

4.1        Geographical location   

4.2        Design models and layout

4.3        Deliveries          

4.4        Doors   

4.5        Daylighting       

4.6        Electric lighting

4.7        Natural ventilation

4.8        Waste  

4.9        Use of recovered heat  

5           Fuels and selection of fuels       

5.1        Energy efficient kitchen fuels    

5.2        Carbon emission figures

6           Interior finishes

6.1        General

6.2        Materials for kitchen walls                      

6.3        Materials for kitchen floors        

6.4        Materials for kitchen ceilings     

6.5        Door types and door closers      

6.6        Insulation         

7           Environmental targets, energy audits and benchmarking        

7.1        Environmental assessment tools             

7.2        Energy audits and surveys          

7.3        Benchmarking 

7.4        Energy benchmarking   

7.5        Operational and environmental benchmarks     

8           Controls and sub-metering        

8.1        Energy controls

8.2        Sub-metering   

9           Drainage and kitchen waste removal     

9.1        FOG (fat, oil and grease) drain management, bioremediation, GRUs and grease traps 

9.2        Refuse and waste disposal         

9.3        Food waste other than cooking oils        

9.4        Food waste disposers   

9.5        On-site, in-vessel composting    

9.6        On-site rapid biodigesters          

9.7        Pump and vacuum food waste systems

9.8        Cooking oils      

9.9        Dry waste          

9.10     Balers, can crushers and bottle crushers

10         Water services 

10.1     General conservation measures

10.2     Water temperatures and distribution    

10.3     Hand washing  

10.4     Sink taps, faucets and pre-rinse sprays  

11         Ventilation       

11.1     General considerations prior to design  

11.2     Design criteria  

11.3     Energy-saving considerations    

11.4     Kitchen HVAC systems  

11.5     Ventilation heat recovery           

11.6     Lighting for canopies and ventilated ceilings       

11.7     Fans and fan motors     

11.8     Thermal insulation of ventilation ducts  

11.9     Pollution control            

11.10   Location of air inlet       

11.11   Ventilation system controls       

11.12   Commissioning, handover and preventative maintenance  

11.13   Self-venting appliances 

11.14   Cleaning and maintenance        

11.15   Fire suppression            

12         Connectivity    

12.1     Overview of connectivity and ICT in a commercial kitchen

12.2     How ICT can help           

12.3     Advantages of remote access    

12.4     Digital food safety applications and equipment performance monitoring         

12.5     Energy optimisation systems     

13         Foodservice equipment specification    

13.1     General considerations

13.2     Principles of life-cycle costing    

13.3     Expected appliance life 

13.4     Utensil specification      

14         Commercial foodservice refrigeration equipment             

14.1     Food storage    

14.2     Energy test criteria and energy labelling

14.3     Energy saving features 

14.4     Refrigeration: climate class       

14.5     Refrigeration selection 

14.6     Coldrooms        

14.7     Refrigerants      

14.8     Refrigeration heat recovery       

14.9     Reusing existing refrigeration   

15         Warewashing: dishwashing, glasswashing and potwashing

15.1     Scope  

15.2     Legislation and guidance            

15.3     Warewashing equipment           

15.4     Opportunities for energy efficiency in warewashing             

15.5     BREEAM credits

15.6     Grease management    

15.7     Dishwashing ventilation

16         Cooking, hot food holding and display equipment             

16.1     General considerations

16.2     Types of cooking equipment     

17         Installation, commissioning and handover

17.1     Commissioning

17.2     Handover training         

18         Documenting the kitchen           

18.1     Design strategy document         

19         Managing the building               

19.1     Environmental responsibilities of management     

19.2     The value of staff training          

19.3     Managing staff turnover            

19.4     Procurement of supplies            

19.4     Managing goods-in and storage

19.5     Managing menu items  

19.6     Managing food preparation processes   

19.7     Managing cooking processes     

19.8     Managing service          

19.9     Managing dishwashing 

19.10   Managing kitchen waste            

19.11   Why kitchens can fail on energy performance goals             

20         Building information modelling (BIM)   

20.1     Digital engineering and the design process        

20.2     Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie)

20.3     Energy savings and whole life costs        

20.4     Information      

20.5     Geolocation      

21         Maintenance and energy efficiency        

21.1     The importance of regular kitchen maintenance   

21.2     Refrigerator maintenance          

21.3     Planned preventative maintenance        

21.4     Maintenance contracts 

21.5     Employing a maintenance contractor    

21.6     In-house maintenance  

22         Operational checklist    

22.1     Energy and water usage champion         

22.2     Waste manager

22.3     Cooking             

22.4     Refrigeration    

22.5     Fryers and oil    

22.6     Dishwashing and portering 

Coordinating authors

Roz Burgess (Intelligent Catering Ltd.), Liz Rose (A&E Catering Design)

Working Group 1: Project considerations and kitchen design 

Roz Burgess (Intelligent Catering Limited) (co-chair), Liz Rose (A & E Catering Design) (co-chair)

Working Group 2: Kitchen aspects

Roz Burgess (Intelligent Catering Ltd.) (co-chair), Alison Cullin-Woodcock (Clifton Foodservice Consultants) (co-chair)

Working Group 3: Water, waste, fats, oils and grease

Duncan Hepburn (Hepburn Associates) (chair), Peter Galliford (Mechline)

Working Group 4: Equipment 

Jackie Snaith (Chapel Foodservice Consultants) (co-chair), Jo Headland (JoH Design Ltd.-Foodservice Solutions) (co-chair), Alison Cullin-Woodcock (Clifton Foodservice Consultants) (co-chair), Michael Eyre (Jestic), Nic Banner (Specifi Global), Steve Elliott (Valentine Equipment Ltd.), Alistair Farquhar (Welbit), Graham Kille (Rational), Steve Wallace (Hobart UK) 

Working Group 5: Refrigeration

David Clayton (BSK Design) (co-chair), Rosemary Hare (Foodesco) (co-chair), Simon Frost (Hoshizaki UK), Andrew Galeckyj (True Manufacturing), Malcolm Harling (Williams Refrigeration), Steve Holland (Foster Coldstores Ltd.), Jan Quilliam (Adande Refrigeration Ltd.)

Working Group 6: Ventilation

Steve Cole (Foodservice Ventilation Consultants) (chair), Hayley Davis (HMA Ventilation Ltd.), Phil Gibson (Halton Foodservice Ltd.)

Working Group 7: Warewashing

Keith Winton (Keith Winton Design) (chair), Keith Broadway (Granuldisk), Mick Jary (Meiko UK), Keith O’Brien (Winterhalter), Steve Wallace (Hobart UK)

Woking Group 8: Fuels and connectivity 

Liz Rose (A & E Catering Design) (chair), Richard Fordham (Ki-Tech Solutions Ltd.), Rag Hulait (Monika), Graham Kille (Rational UK) 

Working Group 9: Building and documentation

Jackie Snaith (Chapel Foodservice Consultants), Jo Headland (JOH Design Ltd.-Foodservice Solutions)

Working Group 10: Environmental and benchmarking 

Calton Clarke (CDIS-KARM)

Working Group 11: Management aspects 

Matthew Merritt-Harrison (Merritt-Harrison Catering Consultancy) (co-chair), Jon Rook (Panache South Ltd.) (co-chair)

Working Group 12: Operational maintenance 

Julian Edwards (GY5 Ltd.)

Working Group 13: Building Information Modelling BIM 

John Gillam (JG Associates) (chair), John Mundy (C&C Catering Equipment Ltd.)

Working Groups oversight

Roz Burgess (Intelligent Catering Ltd.)

Peer reviewers

Alan Kiff (Concept Energy Solutions Ltd.), David Kingstone (Buro Happold), Nick Oryino (FEA), Barry Paschali (PASCHALi EEC), Keith Warren (FEA) 

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