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AM11 Building performance modelling (2015)
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AM11 Building performance modelling (2015)

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The predecessor to this Applications Manual, Building energy and environment modelling was published in 1998. Much has happened over the last two decades in the modelling fields, including computer power and software advances but, more significantly, those in the optimisation of building and system performance for energy reductions and the application of renewable energy technologies in building design and operation. The latter is compounded by rapidly evolving building regulations and strict compliance requirements towards the goal for zero carbon buildings (ZCB) in order to meet the CO2 reduction obligations of some countries. 

In that publication the task group aimed ‘to furnish guidance on the appropriate application of BEEM software, to promote good practice and offer reference material to support practicing engineers’. This aim is still evident in this new Applications Manual, although the present edition has been completely re-written and extends the application of building modelling to many areas that currently need to be properly addressed in building and system design.

With the emphasis on the energy performance of buildings and their systems in order to meet ever stricter building regulations, it has become a necessity to apply sophisticated, state-of-the art simulation tools to predict the performance of buildings as closely as possible to reality. As buildings are known to be complex engineering systems, the performance of which are influenced by a variety of internal mechanical and electrical systems in addition to occupants’ intervention and the external environment, recent advances in simulation tools have attempted to address this complex interaction to provide more comprehensive and detailed performance simulations.

This new AM11, Building performance modelling (BPM), has taken into consideration many of the real issues of simulating buildings and their systems whilst still focusing on compliance with building regulations and quality assurance issues. BPM covers the general concepts of energy and environmental modelling and in particular focuses on: quality assurance procedures, compliance with UK and some international building energy efficiency codes, thermal environment and energy, ventilation, lighting and plant modelling.

This Manual has been written by experts in a variety of building design and modelling software, from academia and engineering practices, providing their expert knowledge in the application of these tools to building and system designs. Many of those involved were also committee members of the CIBSE Building Simulation Group. The dedication and enthusiasm of these and other contributors has produced this very comprehensive manual that is hoped to provide the building design professionals with the knowledge and confidence for effectively applying different types of modelling software in their designs.


1 Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Objectives

1.3 Readership

1.4 Scope and structure

1.5 Using the Manual

2 Quality assurance

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Communication and documentation

2.3 Software capabilities and validation

2.4 Software tool selection

2.5 Setting up QA

3 Modelling for building energy performance regulations compliance and certification

3.1 Introduction

3.2 General modelling approach

3.3 Compliance modelling versus design modelling

3.4 Modelling for building energy performance regulations compliance and certification

3.5 Modelling for building assessment and rating schemes

3.6 Validity of compliance modelling results

4 Energy modelling

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Role of energy demand models

4.3 Limitations of energy modelling

4.4 Scope of energy modelling

4.5 Dynamic thermal modelling of heating and cooling energy demand

4.6 Setting up dynamic thermal models

4.7 Energy demand analysis: watchpoints

4.8 Future trends in energy modelling

5 Thermal environment modelling

5.1 Background to thermal environment modelling

5.2 Which thermal comfort standard to choose?

5.3 When to start modelling during design and which approach to use

5.4 Simplified estimation techniques, design tools and analytical models

5.5 Dynamic thermal environmental modelling

5.6 Computational fluid dynamics for indoor thermal environment modelling

6 Ventilation modelling

6.1 Background to ventilation modelling

6.2 Categories of ventilation modelling tools

6.3 Zonal network methods

6.4 Computational fluid dynamics

6.5 Modelling semi-external spaces

7 Lighting modelling

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Methods to predict the daylight factor

7.3 Factors affecting the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions

7.4 Modelling sunlight

7.5 Modelling non-standard materials and structures

7.6 Visual discomfort and glare

7.7 Climate based daylight modelling

7.8 Modelling artificial lighting

7.9 Lighting environmental and energy modelling

7.10 Case studies

7.11 Simulation approaches

8 Modelling of plant and renewable energy systems

8.1 Introduction and review

8.2 Summary of established methods

8.3 Idealised control functions

8.4 Theoretical steady state component modelling

8.5 Catalogue fit component modelling

8.6 Dynamic state modelling

8.7 Building integrated photovoltaic systems

8.8 Solar thermal collectors

8.9 Building integrated wind energy systems

8.10 Ground source heat pumps

9 Case studies

9.1 Background to case studies

9.2 Selection and presentation of case studies

9.3 100 Bishopsgate: external environmental

9.4 Toulouse School of Economic Sciences

9.5 The Ordnance Survey head office

9.6 London 2012 Velodrome

9.7 199 Bishopsgate: dynamic energy modelling

9.8 Daylighting performance of a London school building

9.9 Irish Office of Public Works

9.10 HVAC systems modelling: office building in Sydney, Australia

9.11 One Airport Square, Accra, Ghana

9.12 Donnington Medical Practice: HTM compliance




Appendix A: Assessment of skills levels for the application of software

Appendix B: Guidance for modellers on the application of software

Appendix C: Checklist for choosing building software

Appendix D: Tools accredited for UK compliance calculations

A corrigenda dated 20 April 2016 is available to download here. This makes a correction to page 6, Section 2.3.1. This was incorporated in the pdf that can be downloaded from this page on 29 April 2016.

Feedback on AM11 is welcomed by the CIBSE Building Simulation Group, and will be considered as drivers for updates and revision. Users of AM11 can send these to a dedicated mailbox - [email protected]


Principal authors: Prof Hazim Awbi, Dr Foroutan Parand, Rokia Raslan, David Williams, Malcolm Orme, Professor Malcolm Cook, Professor John Mardaljevic, Professor Chris Underwood, Darren Coppins

Co-authors: Dr Naghman Khan, Nancy Wood, Dr Foroutan Parand, David Kingston, Dr Jon Hand, Dr Simon Rees, Ben Richardson, Dr Paul Strachan, Dr David Williams, Prof Runming Yao, Prof Catherine Noakes, Dr Yehuda Sinai, Dr Bernardo Vazquez, Professor Darren Woolf, Ruth Kelly, David Mooney, Kevin Womack, Ben Abel, Gustavo Brunelli, Bruce Elrick, Dan Jesico, Alan Jones, Ivan Jovanovic, Veichali Mahendra, Prof John Mardaljevic,Ben Richardson, Ioannis Rizos

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