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SPEMO Energy management & operating costs in bldgs.
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SPEMO Energy management & operating costs in bldgs.

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Managing the consumption and conservation of energy in buildings must now become the concern of both building managers and occupants. The provision of lighting, hot water supply, communications, cooking, space heating and cooling accounts for 45 per cent of UK energy consumption.

Energy Management and Operating Costs in Buildings introduces the reader to the principles of managing and conserving energy consumpton in buildings people use for work or leisure. Energy consumption is considered for the provision of space heating, hot water, supply ventilation and air conditioning. The author introduces the use of standard performance indicators and energy consumption yardsticks, and discusses the use and application of degree days.

Contents: 1. Economics of space heating plant Nomenclature 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The economics 1.3 Internal heat sources 1.4 Standard Degree Days 1.5 Calculation of standard Degree Days 1.6 Non standard Degree Days 1.7 Research into Degree Days 1.8 Limitations of the Degree Day method for estimating energy consumption 1.9 Chapter closure 2. Continous heating Nomenclature 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Estimation procedure for continously heated buildings 2.3 Adoption of equivalent hours and the weather/load factor 2.4 The preferred model for estimating energy consumpton 2.5 Equivalent hours and maximum hours at full load 2.6 Qualifying remarks 2.7 Chapter close 3. Intermittent heating Nomenclature 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Estimation of annual energy demand 3.3 Annual fuel consumption for an office 3.4 Annual fuel consumption for a school 3.5 Qualifying remarks 3.6 Annual fuel consumption for a factory 3.7 Annual fuel consumption for a house 3.8 Further qualifying remarks 3.9 Chapter closure. 4. Hot water supply Nomenclature 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Factors to be considered 4.3 Hot water supply requirements and boiler power 4.4 Determination of the annual energy consumption estimate 4.5 Qualifying remarks 4.6 Further qualifying remarks 4.7 An alternative model 4.8 Chapter closure 5. Cooling degree days Nomenclature 5.1 Introduction 5.2 External heat gains 5.3 Factors affecting the estimation of AED for seasonal cooling 5.4 The use of sol-air temperature for estimating AED for seasoning cooling 5.5 Estimation of AED for the cooling base load 5.6 AED - an untested alternative estimate 5.7 Chapter closure 6. Performance indicators Nomenclature 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Performance indicators 6.3 Standard performance indicators for some common buildings 6.4 Correction factors for standard performance indicators 6.5 Further source data for performance indicators 6.6 Comparison of source data 6.7 Conclusions relating to SCT's and SPI's 6.8 Carbon dioxide emissions 6.9 Carbon dioxide yardsticks 6.10 Chapter closure 7. Energy conservation strategies Nomenclature 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Energy transfer from extraction to point of use 7.3 Efficiency of space heating plants 7.4 Seasonal and base load demand and consumption 7.5 The energy conservation programme 7.6 The energy audit 7.7 The energy survey 7.8 Areas for energy saving 7.9 Heat recovery 7.10 Chapter closure 8. Cost benefit analysis Nomenclature 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Simple pay back 8.3 Discounted cash flow and present value 8.4 Effects of fuel inflation 8.5 Net present value and comparision of different schemes 8.6 Loans 8.7 Life cycle costs 8.8 Repair or replace 8.9 Chapter closure 9. Energy audits Nomenclature 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Preliminaries to an energy audit 9.3 Outcomes of the energy audit 9.4 Measurement of primary energy consumption 9.5 Primary energy tariffs 9.6 Presenting the data - a simple audit 9.7 Presenting the data - a detailed audit 9.8 Further source material 9.9 Chapter closure 10. Monitoring and targeting Nomenclature 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Monitoring procedures 10.3 Monitoring equipment 10.4 Correlation and linear regression 10.5 Continuous performance monitoring using degree days 10.6 Continuous performance monitoring using mean daily outdoor temperature 10.7 Correcting fuel/energy consumption to a common time base 10.8 Performance monitoring using cumulative sum deviation 10.9 Chapter closure Appendices 1. Standard heating Degree Day data 2. Energy conservation measures 3. Preventive maintenance measures 4. Energy efficiency office's series of booklets on introduction to energy efficiency 5. Monitoring equipment 6. Cost benefit tables 7. Standard service illuminance for various interiors/activities 8. Index
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