Skip to main content
LF17 Temporal lighting artefacts (2021) (pdf)
Back To All Knowledge Items

LF17 Temporal lighting artefacts (2021) (pdf)

Standard Rate
Member Rate

'Temporal lighting artefacts' is the collective term for flicker, stroboscopic effects and phantom arrays.

Flicker, at the very least, can cause discomfort; at worst, exposure over a period of time can be detrimental to health. Stroboscopic effects can cause reciprocating or rotating equipment to appear not to be moving; this can be dangerous, and can lead to accidents. Stroboscopic effects can also cause photosensitive epileptic seizures. Phantom arrays are less perceptible, but can cause eye strain, and may be detrimental to health.

This Lighting Factfile covers these three phenomena in greater detail, and instructs how best to take them into account when designing and specifying lighting.


  1. What are temporal lighting artefacts?
  2. What causes temporal lighting artefacts?
  3. Legislation/standards to limit TLAs
  4. Including TLAs in project specifications
  5. Practical considerations for luminaire specifiers

Author: Sophie Parry


This is one of the Society of Light and Lighting's series of freely available factfiles, all of which are available here: SLL Lighting Factfiles

Share this page